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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 102-107

Clinical presentation, management and in-hospital outcomes of Acute coronary syndrome patients in real world scenario in developing countries: Insight from a high volume tertiary care center in North India

1 Department of Cardiology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Brij Healthcare and Research Center, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ashish Tiwari
Department of Cardiology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow - 226 003, Uttar Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/heartindia.heartindia_87_21

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Background: With the introduction of a huge armamentarium of invasive and noninvasive therapeutic strategies, the mortality related to acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has decreased across the world over the past 20 years, but the mortality remains high among Indian patients due to limited resource settings. Even in India, there is significant difference in health infrastructure in different part of country. This study was performed to evaluate the presentation, management and outcomes of ACS patients admitted in a high volume tertiary center of north India. Enrolment of the study done prior to covid pandemic. Materials and Methods: 3511 ACS patients >18 year of age were included for this prospective observational study. All patients were evaluated with detailed clinical history and examination, ECG, Troponin, and detailed echocardiography. Patients were treated as per current guideline recommendation which included primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), pharmacoinvasive therapy, thrombolysis or medical management only. Data was analysed for age, sex, risk factors, type of ACS, treatment given and complications if any. Those patients who underwent invasive approach also evaluated for coronary anatomy pattern and variables. Results: Study population had younger mean age of 57.2 years, male preponderance (67%) and very high tobacco intake (46%). Out of all ACS patients 39% were STEMI (55% anterior wall myocardial infarction, 43% inferior wall myocardial infarction) and 61% were NSTEMI/USA. In STEMI subgroup, only 18% had primary PCI, while 42% received thrombolytic therapy as primary management. Nearly half of the patients who received thrombolytic therapy underwent pharmacoinvasive treatment (47.5%). A large number of late presenters (32% of all STEMI) did not receive any reperfusion therapy in index admission while few of them (6%) underwent invasive revascularization. Coronary anatomy evaluation showed multivessel disease in 53.1%. Left anterior descending artery was most common vessel involved (69.3%) among all ACS patients underwent coronary angiography. Most of the STEMI patients who underwent invasive route received PCI while very low rate for referral for CABG (2.1%). Major complications noted in study included left ventricular failure/cardiogenic shock (11.7%), advance AV blocks (8.2%), VT/VF (2.8%), Ventricular septal rupture (0.7%) and stent thrombosis (0.5%). In hospital mortality remained high (11.5%) mainly due to late presenters. Conclusion: ACS management specially STEMI care is still needs a boost in north India. With primary PCI rate of only 18% and more than one third being late presenters not receiving any reperfusion therapy, there is urgent need of robust primary and referral health care system. As compared to other part of India, tobacco intake is alarmingly high (46%) and needs widespread health awareness in community of tobacco ill effects.

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