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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 3-11

Role of spironolactone in patients with resistant hypertension: A narrative review

1 Department of Nephrology, Grant Government Medical College and Sir J. J. Group of Hospitals, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Medicine, Seth G. S. Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Geeta Sheth
Department of Nephrology, Grant Government Medical College and Sir J. J. Group of Hospitals, Mumbai, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/heartindia.heartindia_48_20

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Treatment-resistant hypertension (RH) is defined as uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) despite use of at least three different antihypertensive agents (including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker, calcium channel blocker, and a diuretic) at their optimal doses. It is important to properly diagnose and treat RH because patients are at high risk of end-organ damage. Activated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, increased renal sympathetic nervous system activity (increase sodium and water reabsorption and thus increase in extracellular fluid volume), and increased arterial stiffness become the main reason for hypertension. Therefore, a controlled BP can be achieved by the use of mineralocorticoid receptor blockers as add-on treatment to the first-line triple-drug combination therapy. In this review, we provide evidences from various studies comparing spironolactone treatment with other comparators (diuretics or other mineralocorticoid receptor blockers) or placebo signifying spironolactone is beneficial for controlling BP in patients with RH. Furthermore, there is a greater need to increase the use of mineralocorticoid receptor blocker, spironolactone, as fourth-line medication add-on to three drug therapy in patients with RH.

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