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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Clinical characteristics, angiographic profile and in hospital mortality in acute coronary syndrome patients in south indian population
Rajni Sharma, Shivkumar Bhairappa, SR Prasad, Cholenahally Nanjappa Manjunath
July-September 2014, 2(3):65-69
DOI:10.4103/2321-449x.140228  
Aims: The aim was to study the clinical profile, risk factors prevalence, angiographic distribution, and severity of coronary artery stenosis in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients of South Indian population. Materials and Methods: A total of 1562 patients of ACS were analyzed for various risk factors, angiographic pattern and severity of coronary heart disease, complications and in hospital mortality at Sri Jayadeva Institute of Cardiovascular Research and Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. Results: Mean age of presentation was 54.71 ± 19.90 years. Majority were male 1242 (79.5%) and rest were females. Most patients had ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) 995 (63.7%) followed by unstable angina (UA) 390 (25%) and non-STEMI (NSTEMI) 177 (11.3%). Risk factors; smoking was present in 770 (49.3%), hypertension in 628 (40.2%), diabetes in 578 (37%), and obesity in (29.64%) patients. Angiography was done in 1443 (92.38%) patients. left anterior descending was most commonly involved, left main (LM) coronary artery was least common with near similar frequency of right coronary artery and left circumflex involvement among all three groups of ACS patients. Single-vessel disease was present in 168 (45.28%) UA, 94 (56.29%) NSTEMI and 468 (51.71%) STEMI patients. Double-vessel disease was present in 67 (18.08%) UA, 25 (14.97%) NSTEMI and 172 (19.01%) STEMI patients. Triple vessel disease was present in 28 (7.55%) UA, 16 (9.58%) NSTEMI, 72 (7.95%) STEMI patients. LM disease was present in 12 (3.23%) UA, 2 (1.19%) NSTEMI and 9 (0.99%) STEMI patients. Complications; ventricular septal rupture occurred in 3 (0.2%), free wall rupture in 2 (0.1%), cardiogenic shock in 45 (2.9%), severe mitral regurgitation in 3 (0.2%), complete heart block in 11 (0.7%) patients. Total 124 (7.9%) patients died in hospital after 2.1 ± 1.85 days of admission. Conclusion: STEMI was most common presentation. ACS occurred a decade earlier in comparison to Western population. Smoking was most prevalent risk factor. Diabetic patients had more of multivessel disease. Complications and in hospital mortality was higher in females and elderly population.
  13 6,938 1,142
Prevalence and spectrum of congenital heart diseases in children
Khurshid Ahmed Wanni, Naveed Shahzad, Mohd Ashraf, Kaisar Ahmed, Muzafer Jan, Shafaqat Rasool
July-September 2014, 2(3):76-79
DOI:10.4103/2321-449x.140230  
Background: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in the pediatric population of both the developing and developed countries. Variability in incidence and prevalence of CHD from various countries of Indian subcontinent and rest of the world could be because of genetic, cultural, and environmental factors. Objective: To find the prevalence and pattern of CHD in a tertiary care hospital in Kashmir (J&K). Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of case-records data of 767,921 patients (0-18 years) over 3 years and 10 months period was conducted to ascertain the prevalence and spectrum of CHDs. Results: A total of 877 patients out of 767,921, were found having CHDs measuring a prevalence of 1.12/1000. About 777 (88.5%) were the acyanotics, and 100 (11.5%) were cyanotic heart patients. Among the acyanotic heart diseases ventricular septal defect was the most frequent lesion seen in 241 (31.2%), followed by patent ductus arteriosus in 184 (24.3%) children. Among the cyanotic heart diseases tetralogy of Fallot was the most frequent cyanotic heart disease seen in 48 (48.0%) patients. Conclusion: Prevalence of 1.12/1000 among the hospital attending patients could be an underestimation of the actual disease burden in our community, and heightened awareness among the treating physicians about the cardiac diseases could actually reduce the mortality and morbidity associated with these ailments.
  9 6,879 948
Risk Factors for Coronary Artery Diseases: A Study Among Patients With Ischemic Heart Disease in Kerala
Cyril James
April-June 2013, 1(1):7-11
DOI:10.4103/2321-449x.113603  
Objective : The objective of this study was to analyses the major risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) for patients with ischemic heart disease in Kerala. Design : A cross-sectional study among patients with established CAD admitted in the Department of Cardiology during the month of June-Dec 2012. Setting : Study was carried out in a tertiary cardiac center in Kerala. Participants: A total of 496 patients who were admitted in the Cardiology department between June 2012 and December 2012 with acute coronary syndrome or coronary angiographic or Electrocardiography evidence of ischemic heart disease. Risk factors studied were the conventional risk factors for coronary artery disease - hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, body mass index (BMI), smoking, and family history of coronary artery disease. Data are collected from the patients, old medical records, Clinical Examination and Laboratory results of the patients were analyzed for the study. Results: From the study, it was seen that in Keralites-irrespective of gender, diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance (79%) and dyslipidemia (71%) are the major risk factor for Coronary artery disease. Hypertension (39%) and cigarette smoking (24%) were not seen to be a major risk factors for coronary artery disease as only a minority of the study population had hypertension or gives a history of cigarette smoking. 57% of the study population had a family history of coronary artery disease. Among the studied population, 55% of females are with increased BMI, whereas only 16% of males with CAD were with BMI above 30. Conclusion: Among South Indian population irrespective of gender, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia are the major Risk factor for Coronary artery disease. So early detection of diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia and proper treatment of both, before developing the end organ damage, play a vital role for the prevention of coronary artery disease.
  2 28,617 1,585
Utilization of who-ish 10-year cvd risk prediction chart as a screening tool among supporting staff of a tertiary care hospital, Mysuru, India
BB Savitharani, B Madhu, M Renuka, Sridevi , NC Ashok
January-March 2016, 4(1):13-16
DOI:10.4103/2321-449X.178119  
Background: Noncommunicable diseases are increasing and constitute a serious concern, accounting for 52% of the deaths and 38% of the disease burden in the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region. Eighty percent of total deaths due to noncommunicable diseases occur in the low-income countries. Lifestyle changes are resulting in an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Surveillance of CVD risk factors is a key to reduce the burden of CVD. WHO–International Society of Hypertension (ISH) 10-year risk prediction charts have been developed for the screening of CVD risk factors in different regions. The National Programme for Prevention and Control of Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke (NPDCS) has also recommended the utilization of these charts for routine screening. The present study has used the WHO-ISH CVD risk prediction chart to assess the feasibility of utilization of this chart as a predicting tool of a CVD event. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among supporting staff of JSS Hospital, Mysuru, Karnataka, India to assess the CVD risk factors and risk factor profiling, and the prediction of 10-year risk for CVD was done using a WHO-ISH risk prediction chart. Results: A total of 900 supporting staff were screened for CVD risks. Out of them, 30 (3.3%) had hypertension, 20 (2.2%) had diabetes mellitus, 18 (1.99%) consumed tobacco. The proportion of newly detected diabetes cases was 8 (0.9%) and of prediabetics was 32 (3.7%). The proportion of newly detected prehypertensives were 292 (39.08%), and 27 (3.61%) were hypertensives. Out of 175 individuals aged above 40 years, the WHO-ISH risk prediction chart predicted that 1.7% of them had >10% risk of CVD event within 10 years. Conclusion: Hidden, asymptomatic individual of diabetes, and hypertension were identified; the WHO-ISH 10 year risk prediction chart was easier for assessing the CVD risk factors and risk grouping, and could also be used to show them the extent of risk and predicting their 10-year risk of stroke or myocardial infarction (MI).
  2 3,401 360
CASE REPORT
The Vanishing Right Ventricular Masses
Sudarshan Kumar Vijay, Bhuwan Chandra Tiwari, Mukul Misra, Lalit Mohan Joshi
April-June 2013, 1(1):17-19
DOI:10.4103/2321-449x.113598  
The mural endocarditis is a rare cause of intracardiac masses, which is difficult to diagnose and usually requires surgery to prevent embolization and intracardiac complications. We herein present an unusual case of right ventricular mural endocarditis in a patient with rheumatic heart disease, in which presence of multiple mural vegetations was visualized on two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography and better delineated with three-dimensional echocardiography. There was complete resolution of vegetations with antibiotic therapy.
  1 6,032 336
CASE REPORTS
Scrub typhus causing myocarditis and ARDS: A case report
Sai Lakshmikanth Bharathi, S Jayachandran, N Senthil, S Sujatha
October-December 2013, 1(3):85-86
DOI:10.4103/2321-449x.122785  
Scrub typhus, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is endemic in the so-called "tsutsugamushi triangle". There is a wide spectrum of presentation of the disease ranging from uncomplicated febrile illness to life-threatening sepsis with multiorgan dysfunction. We are presenting a case of scrub typhus causing myocarditis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in an adult female with no previous comorbid illness who recovered fully with prompt treatment in spite of prolonged ventilator support, emphasizng the need for early diagnosis and prompt treatment with antirickettsial antibiotics in a patient presenting with features of scrub typhus.
  1 3,824 404
Complete Heart Block in Rheumatoid Arthritis
Rajaram R Desai, Amit K Sakaria, Utkarsh K Goel, Akshay N Lakhotia, Kuldeep B Shah
April-June 2014, 2(2):56-58
DOI:10.4103/2321-449x.134588  
The extra-articular manifestations of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) have drawn as much interest as the disease itself and thus leading to it being labeled as a chronic inflammatory joint disease with a multisystem involvement. Of the various known extra-articular manifestations, one of the rare complications is the conduction abnormalities of the heart that is seen in the active disease. Here, we are reporting a case of a female patient with RA, who to begin with had conduction defects secondary to RA which later progressed to a complete heart block, as its sequelae.
  1 2,278 232
Aortopulmonary Window: A Rare Cardiac Anomaly Presenting in Adolescent Age Group
Neeraj K Ganju, Arvind Kandoria
July-September 2015, 3(3):87-89
DOI:10.4103/2321-449X.157284  
Aortopulmonary window (APW) is an extremely rare cardiac malformation accounting for 0.2-0.6% of all congenital heart defects. In an acyanotic patient with clinical evidence of patent ductus arteriosus with large left to right shunts and systolic rather than continuous murmur one should keep in mind the possibility of APW. If not treated early in childhood or adolescence, they tend to develop pulmonary hypertension, which can be fatal in almost all cases. Few surviving adult patients have symptoms associated with severe pulmonary hypertension, making these cases inoperable. We document an unusual case presenting in the second decade.
  1 2,556 206
LETTER TO EDITOR
Complete Occlusion of Subclavian Venous Access: An Unexpected Troubleshoot During Permanent Pacemaker Pulse-Generator Replacement
Arindam Pande, Achyut Sarkar, Imran Ahmed, Naveen GS Chandra
April-June 2015, 3(2):56-57
DOI:10.4103/2321-449X.158883  
  1 1,809 191
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Screening of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Using Two-Dimensional Transthoracic Doppler Echocardiography in Tertiary Care Hospital in India
Vinay Mahishale, Bhagyashri Patil, Ankit Rathi, Avuthu Sindhuri, Ajith Eti
July-September 2015, 3(3):66-71
DOI:10.4103/2321-449X.157277  
Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are common and underdiagnosed medical conditions in India. Prevalence of these chronic diseases is high both in rural and urban areas. However, the exact prevalence of PAH in Indian COPD patients is unclear. Comorbid conditions like PAH have a great impact on the outcome of COPD in the form of severity, exacerbations, morbidity, and mortality. Right heart catheterization remains the gold standard test for diagnosis of PAH, but it is invasive and practically not feasible. Aims and objectives: The present study objective was to screen COPD patients for PAH using two-dimensional transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (ECHO) in Tertiary Care Hospital. Results: A total of 2040 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COPD were enrolled in the study. Among these patients, 1509 were males (73.9%), 531 were females (23.06%), and 1428 were known or ex-smokers (70%). None of the females were smokers, but there was a history of biomass fuel exposure for >10 years. As per global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease criteria, mild, moderate, severe, and very severe COPD was noted in 525,629,511, and 375 patients, respectively. When they were screened using ECHO, prevalence of PAH was 41.96% as 856 subjects had PAH. Prevalence of PAH among mild, moderate, severe, and very severe COPD was 23.8%, 34.81%, 48.53%, and 70.4%, respectively. There was a linear relationship between PAH and severity of COPD. Conclusion: PAH is very common in COPD patients in India. As the severity of COPD increased, the frequency and degree of PAH also increased. ECHO is an excellent tool for detection of PAH in COPD patients. All patients with severe to very severe COPD should be routinely screened by ECHO for PAH and with mild to moderate COPD, who have dyspnea out of proportion to their clinical condition should also be screened for PAH.
  1 2,369 272
The Role of Routine ECG Testing in Preoperative Evaluation Prior to Non Cardiac Surgery
Sushma Trikha, Neelima Singh
July-September 2015, 3(3):72-75
DOI:10.4103/2321-449X.157276  
The current study attempts to address an issue which is the need to obtain a preoperative electrocardiography (ECG) in all patients prior to non-cardiac surgery. Significance in patients without symptoms is uncertain. Aims: To study the incidence of ECG abnormalities in preoperative patients posted for elective non-cardiac surgery. 2. To study the co-relation of risk factors with ECG abnormalities. Materials and Methods: All hospitalized clinically stable patients advised ECG for preanesthetic assessment prior to elective non-cardiac surgery were included as subjects. Co-relation of risk factors with ECG abnormalities were studied. Statistical analysis used: Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software (chi-square test) Results: One hundred and twenty-eight males and 65 females were enrolled for study. Preoperative ECG was normal in 116 (60.10%) and abnormal in 77 (39.90%) patients. Abnormal ECG was more common in those with hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and smoking. No adverse postoperative event was observed in any of the patient. Conclusions: ECG being a simple non-invasive tool should be considered for all patients undergoing elective procedures and should be mandatory for those with risk factors.
  1 3,169 266
Submammary incision as right minithoracotomy approach with intercostal nerve exclusion and blockage technique: A comparative study in the young Indian female population undergoing mitral valve replacement
Sidartha Lukram, Mohit Sharma, Amit Sharan, Sunil Dixit, Anil Sharma
April-June 2016, 4(2):61-66
DOI:10.4103/2321-449X.183523  
Objective: This study compares the quality of mitral valve (MV) replacement performed through a submammary right thoracotomy incision with nerve sparing opening and closure to the standard midline sternotomy procedure. Materials and Methods: Hundred young female patients underwent MV replacement with 50 patients in the thoracotomy group and the remaining 50 patients in the median sternotomy group between August 2013 and April 2014 with follow-up till August 2015. Demographics, procedures, operative techniques, and postoperative morbidity and mortality, along with follow-up, were recorded in both the patients and compared. Results: In our study, postoperative pain and postoperative drainage were significantly lower in the thoracotomy variant with 60% of the cases draining only 100-200 mL. Morbidity is quite less in the thoracotomy variant with 60% of the cases able to stand up without support postoperatively 12 h after extubation while the number is only 20% in the sternotomy variant and that too with sternal support. Most of the thoracotomy cases were discharged from the hospital within 1 week. On follow-up, there were only two cases, i.e., 4% of the total cases presenting with hypertrophied scar, which is significantly lower than 20% of the sternotomy cases where three cases developed into keloid while in the sternotomy cases, 10 (20%) cases reported with wound discharge and infection. Conclusions: This procedure provides the same quality of treatment through a less traumatic and better cosmetic incision, resulting in less hospital stay and a lower overall cost.
  1 2,020 159
Baseline hemoglobin and creatinine clearance as independent risk factors for 30-day event rate in patients of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention
Richa Agrawal, RK Nath, Neeraj Pandit, Ajay Raj
October-December 2018, 6(4):127-132
DOI:10.4103/heartindia.heartindia_28_18  
Background: Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is the most effective therapy for managing acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Studies have shown baseline low hemoglobin (Hb) and reduced creatinine clearance (CrCl) as risk factors for adverse outcomes in patients with heart failure, in patients undergoing PCI, and in acute coronary syndrome. However, their similar role in patients of acute STEMI undergoing primary PCI is not known. Objective: The main objective is to study whether baseline Hb and CrCl are the independent risk factors for the 30 days event rate in patients of acute STEMI undergoing primary PCI. Methods: We prospectively studied 500 patients of acute STEMI undergoing primary PCI. Hb and CrCl were measured at baseline and then at 15th and 30th day after the event. Patients were divided into four groups based on whether they have normal or abnormal baseline Hb and CrCl. Patients were followed for 30-day postdischarge for incidence of major adverse events in the form of death, reinfarction, reintervention, and hemodynamically unstable ventricular tachyarrhythmias. We assessed correlation between baseline Hb, CrC, l and 30-day event rate among four groups using Chi-square test. Results: On comparison among groups, compared to Group 1, Group 2, 3, and 4 had significantly higher adverse events ([6.48% vs. 19.44%] [P = 0.021]), ([6.48% vs. 30%] [P = 0.0003]), ([6.48% vs. 51.66%] [P ≤ 0.0001]), respectively, at 30 days after primary PCI. Conclusion: In patients of acute STEMI undergoing primary PCI, both baseline impaired CrCl and low Hb behaved independently as risk factors for increased 30-day event rates.
  1 1,302 175
Study of clinical profile, incidence, pattern, and atherosclerotic involvement of congenital coronary artery anomalies in adults undergoing coronary angiography: A study from a tertiary care institute in western part of India
Jaywant M Nawale, Ajay S Chaurasia, Digvijay Deeliprao Nalawade, Piyush Choudalwar, Nikhil Borikar, Dhirendra Tiwari
October-December 2018, 6(4):133-140
DOI:10.4103/heartindia.heartindia_33_18  
Objective: Congenital coronary artery anomalies (CCAs) are rare, clinically benign, and majority are diagnosed incidentally during coronary angiography or an autopsy. Identification of CCA is important for management by cardiologists or cardiac surgeons, and also few cases of CCA are potentially serious which may cause sudden cardiac death. We performed a retrospective, single-center study to evaluate the clinical profile, incidence, pattern, and atherosclerotic involvement of CCA in patients undergoing coronary angiography. Methods: Coronary angiographies performed in adult patients during the study period of 2 years were screened for CCA. These patients were retrospectively analyzed in terms of clinical characteristics and angiographic profiles. Results: Of 4481 angiograms screened, 86 patients were found to have CCA with the incidence of 1.91%. Nearly 76.7% were male and 23.3% were female, with a mean age of 53.02 ± 10 years. Anomalies of origin and course were most common (94.18%) followed by anomalies of termination (5.81%), with right coronary artery (RCA) being the most common artery. Anomalous origin of RCA from the left sinus of Valsalva and separate origin of left anterior descending artery and left circumflex artery were both found to be the most common types. The incidence of atherosclerosis in anomalous vessels was 52.32%. Conclusions: CCAs were diagnosed incidentally during coronary angiography and had male predominance with conventional risk factors. The incidence of CCA was slightly higher than that of the previous angiographic studies, but the pattern of anomalies was similar with majority being benign. Anomalous vessels did not predispose to atherosclerotic involvement as compared to normal vessels in the same patients.
  1 1,310 191
Combined cesarean section and mitral valve replacement in severe symptomatic mitral valve disease with unfavorable valve anatomy: Experience at a tertiary referral center of North India
Mandakini Pradhan, Sangeeta Yadav, Neeta Singh, Gauranga Majumdar, Surendra Kumar Agarwal
July-September 2019, 7(3):93-96
DOI:10.4103/heartindia.heartindia_24_19  
Objective: To discuss the management in a subset of patients with severe mitral valve disease having calcified, nonpliable valves not suitable for percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty during pregnancy, presenting with Stage III–IV of the clinical classification of New York Heart Association. Methods: Patients with nonpliable valves presenting with heart failure in pregnancy at advanced gestation were planned for simultaneous cesarean section followed by mitral valve replacement. Results: All patients underwent successful surgery with good maternal and neonatal outcome. Conclusion: Patients with severe mitral valvular disease in failure in pregnancy, who are at high risk of mortality in pregnancy or during and following delivery, benefit from combined surgery.
  1 849 110
Variant anatomy of coronary arteries
Jyoti P Kulkarni
July-September 2013, 1(2):46-51
DOI:10.4103/2321-449x.118582  
Introduction: Wide variations exist in the size, position, and shape of various body organs, finger prints, and proteins in different individuals. Some variations are of considerable clinical importance, such as the coronary arteries. Variations of coronary arteries can cause important clinical manifestation, including sudden death of the individual. Materials and Methods: Coronary arteries were dissected in 10% formalin-fixed cadaveric hearts. The normal and variant anatomy of coronary arteries was studied. Result: In 100% of cases, the right coronary artery (RCA) and main left coronary artery (LCA) were found to arise from anterior aortic sinus and left posterior aortic sinus, respectively. In 8% of cases, the conus was found to have independent origin from the anterior aortic sinus. The RCA was found to be dominant in 90% of cases. In 66.7% of cases, the length of RCA ranged from 4.5 cm to 7 cm. The average length of LCA was found to be 7 mm. In 10% of cases, the circumflex coronary artery was found to be dominant, where the length of the artery ranged 9-11 cm. In 10% of cases, LCA trifurcated, where the obtuse marginal branch was replaced by the ramus intermedius branch. Also, 43.3% of LAD showed myocardial bridging predominantly in the middle 1/3 rd segment, and 6.7% of cases of RCA showed myocardial looping. Discussion: Coronary arteries show immense variation in their origin, termination, branching pattern, myocardial bridging, looping, and dominance pattern. This knowledge is clinically and surgically important to manage coronary artery diseases.
  1 5,334 603
Electrocardiographic Pattern of Apparently Healthy Primary School Children Aged 5-15 Years, in Kano
Ibrahim Aliyu, Mu'uta Ibrahim
January-March 2015, 3(1):12-17
DOI:10.4103/2321-449X.153280  
Background: Electrocardiography (ECG) is a simple, noninvasive, and relatively cheap investigative tool used for cardiac evaluation. However, there are limited electrocardiographic studies of Nigerian children. Adult studies of ECG have shown significant differences between Black and Caucasian populations. These differences may also be seen in children, hence, the need to develop local reference values. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study and multistage random sampling method was applied to select 650 subjects. The ECG machine was a portable heated stylus direct writing AT-2 Swiss made electrocardiograph (Schiller AG Cardiovit CH6341). Results: There were 350 males (53.3%) and 300 females (46.7 %), with a male:female ratio of 1.2:1. The mean heart rate decreased with increasing age. R-wave amplitudes were higher in the left precordial leads, in keeping with left ventricular dominance. Mean values were higher in boys than girls in the three age-groups in most of the precordial and limb leads. In V 4 R, V 2 , and V 3 highest mean R wave voltages of 0.5 ± 0.1, 1.4 ± 0.3, and 1.4 ± 0.2 mV, respectively, were recorded in the 5-7-year-old. While in V 5 and V 6 , the mean R waves were higher in the 12-15-year-old age group (3.7± 0.5 and 2.5±0.4 mV, respectively). The S-waves showed progressive decrease in its amplitude on the left precordial leads with increasing age. Conclusion: The mean values in heart rate, QRS duration, PR interval, and P-wave amplitude showed higher amplitudes in boys. Similarly higher amplitudes of R-waves in boys were recorded in precordial leads V 2 , V 3 , V 5 , and V 6 in the three age groups.
  1 3,696 323
Ten Years Risk Prediction of a Major Cardiovascular Event in a Rural Block in Tamil Nadu
Logaraj Muthunarayanan, John Kamala Russel, Shailendra Kumar Hegde, Balaji Ramraj
April-June 2015, 3(2):43-48
DOI:10.4103/2321-449X.158878  
Background: India has a high burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). High-risk interventions can be initiated only when individuals at high-risk have been identified. Objectives: The objective was to estimate the prevalence and the sociodemographic pattern of cardiovascular risk factors and to predict the 10 years risk of fatal and nonfatal major cardiovascular events in a rural population in Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 30 villages of a rural block in Tamil Nadu from March 2012 to February 2013 in the age group of 40-79 years attending our fixed mobile clinics using structured interview schedule and subsequently, the World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) risk charts were used to predict the 10 years absolute risk of fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular event. Results: A total of 482 individuals were studied of which 68.3% were women and 31.7% were men. Prevalence of overweight, diabetes, and systolic hypertension was found to be 60%, 22.8%, and 34.6%, respectively. A majority (79.9%) of the study population had 10 years cardiovascular risk of <10% while only 2.5% had a risk of more than 40%. As the age advances, the proportion of participants with high-risk also increased and this trend was statistically significant (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Less than 10% of the population had a high-risk of CVD based on WHO/ISH risk score. These charts help identify the high-risk groups in the population in resource-scarce setting and thus an appropriate action can be taken.
  1 2,725 319
REVIEW ARTICLE
Functional Angioplasty
Rohit Tewari
April-June 2013, 1(1):3-6
DOI:10.4103/2321-449x.113601  
Coronary angiography underestimates or overestimates lesion severity, but still remains the cornerstone in the decision making for revascularization for an overwhelming majority of interventional cardiologists. Guidelines recommend and endorse non invasive functional evaluation ought to precede revascularization. In real world practice, this is adopted in less than 50% of patients who go on to have some form of revascularization. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is the ratio of maximal blood flow in a stenotic coronary relative to maximal flow in the same vessel, were it normal. Being independent of changes in heart rate, BP or prior infarction; and take into account the contribution of collateral blood flow. It is a majorly specific index with a reasonably high sensitivity (88%), specificity (100%), positive predictive value (100%), and overall accuracy (93%). Whilst FFR provides objective determination of ischemia and helps select appropriate candidates for revascularization (for both CABG and PCI) in to cath lab itself before intervention, whereas intravascular ultrasound/optical coherence tomography guidance in PCI can secure the procedure by optimizing stent expansion. Functional angioplasty simply is incorporating both intravascular ultrasound and FFR into our daily Intervention practices.
  1 2,876 327
Role of herpesviruses in coronary artery disease
Agam Bansal, Debasis Biswas
July-September 2018, 6(3):75-80
DOI:10.4103/heartindia.heartindia_18_18  
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a huge global burden and is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality across the world. We have done this review to elucidate the pathogenesis of herpesviruses in causing CAD and to study an association between herpesviruses (cytomegalovirus [CMV] and herpes simplex virus [HSV-1 and -2]) and CAD. CMV can cause atherosclerosis directly through the activity of its gene products on endothelial cells, monocytes/macrophages, and smooth muscle cells and indirectly through production of pro-inflammatory cytokines at far off place. HSV infection causes atherosclerosis mainly by causing increased prothrombotic activity on endothelial cells, accumulation of cholesterol esters and triacylglycerols in vascular smooth muscle cells, and upregulating expression of Lectin like oxidized Low density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) receptor on macrophages. The association between CMV and CAD is related to its seroprevalence with a positive association in developing countries (higher seroprevalence) and no significant association in developed countries (lower seroprevalence). However, the association between HSV infection and atherosclerosis is not related to its seroprevalence.
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