Evaluation of prosthetic valve dysfunction by three-dimensional echocardiography
Subhash Chaudhari1, Jayesh Prajapati2, Naman Shastri3, Iva Patel4, Sharad Jain2, Sibasis Sahoo2, Vijay Gupta5
1 Department of Cardiology, Solar Hospital, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India
2 Department of Cardiology, UN Mehta Institute of Cardiology and Research Center, Civil Hospital Campus, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India
3 Department of Cardiac Anaesthesia, Sal Hospital and Medical Institute, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India
4 Department of Research, UN Mehta Institute of Cardiology and Research Center, Civil Hospital Campus, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India
5 Department of Nuclear Medicine, UN Mehta Institute of Cardiology and Research Center, Civil Hospital Campus, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India
Department of Cardiology, UN Mehta Institute of Cardiology and Research Center, Civil Hospital Campus, Asarwa, Ahmedabad - 380 016, Gujarat
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography (echo) and transesophageal echo images enable visualization of valvular anatomy from unique orientations with improved spatial relationships not previously seen with two-dimensional (2D) echo.
Materials and Methods: Patients who fulfilled the criteria had undergone detailed evaluation of prosthetic valve dysfunction. Prosthetic valve dysfunction patients with stable hemodynamic were included and 3D echo findings were compared with 2D echo.
Results: A total of 10 males and 25 females were evaluated in the study. Two females and one male had bioprosthetic, three males and two females had tilting disc valve, while 21 females and six males had bileaflet mechanical valve. 3D echo had shown abnormal motion of leaflets in seven male and 21 female patients compared to 2D echo. Abnormal valvular calcification was demonstrated in a total of 23 patients on 3D echo. Valve sewing-ring integrity and motion were found abnormal in two male and two female patients in 3D echo. Prosthetic valve dehiscence and thrombus were better seen in five and 15 patients, respectively, on 3D echo. On 3D echo, pannus was better seen in one male and two females. 3D echo defined exact site and size of vegetation better than 2D echo in two female patients.
Conclusions: Real-time 3D imaging allows clinically useful visualization of prosthetic valve components such as leaflets, rings, and struts of all prosthetic valves, irrespective of position. “En face” view of the valve has proven useful in the assessment of prosthetic valve endocarditis, paravalvular regurgitation, and prosthesis dysfunction. 3D echo imaging plays an important role in device closure.