|Year : 2017 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 122-124
Balloon-assisted guide catheter tracking: An innovative technique for anomalous right coronary artery stenting
V Desabandhu, KK Goyal, S Shetty
Department of Cardiology, Government Medical College, Kozhikode, Kerala, India
|Date of Web Publication||12-Sep-2017|
K K Goyal
Department of Cardiology, Super-Specialty Block, Government Medical College, Kozhikode - 673 008, Kerala
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
The most important factor for a successful percutaneous coronary intervention of an anomalous right coronary artery arising from left sinus is coaxial alignment of guide catheter and adequate backup support. In this report, we describe a novel case in which we used a distally parked balloon to assist in tracking and proper alignment of the guide catheter.
Keywords: Anomalous right coronary artery, coronary artery anomalies, percutaneous coronary intervention
|How to cite this article:|
Desabandhu V, Goyal K K, Shetty S. Balloon-assisted guide catheter tracking: An innovative technique for anomalous right coronary artery stenting. Heart India 2017;5:122-4
|How to cite this URL:|
Desabandhu V, Goyal K K, Shetty S. Balloon-assisted guide catheter tracking: An innovative technique for anomalous right coronary artery stenting. Heart India [serial online] 2017 [cited 2018 Nov 21];5:122-4. Available from: http://www.heartindia.net/text.asp?2017/5/3/122/214426
| Introduction|| |
The incidence of coronary artery anomalies (CAA) ranges from 0.2% to 5.6% in various studies., Anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery is a relatively common coronary anomaly of which anomalous origin of right coronary artery (RCA) is more frequent. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of an anomalous RCA from the left sinus of Valsalva is technically challenging as the anomalous origin impedes coaxial arrangement of guiding catheter and there is a lack of adequate backup force for the guiding catheter. We herein report a novel technique for PCI of an anomalous RCA in which we used a balloon to successfully track the guiding catheter and cannulate the RCA.
| Case Report|| |
A 62-year-old hypertensive male was admitted with complaint of exertional angina Grade II to III for the last 1 month. He had a history of an inferior wall ST-elevation myocardial infarction 2 months back for which he was thrombolysed with streptokinase with fair ST resolution. The patient was taken for elective coronary angiography through the right femoral approach which showed an anomalous RCA arising from the left coronary sinus. The artery was hooked using a 7F Judkins left 3.5 diagnostic catheter and found to be having a mid-tubular tight lesion [Figure 1]. Left-sided coronary arteries were normal, and hence, it was decided to go ahead with an angioplasty of RCA. However, various attempts to cannulate RCA using 6F Judkins left 3.0, 7F Judkins left 3.5, 4.0 and Amlatz left AL1 were unsuccessful. We rehooked the RCA with 7FJL 3.5 diagnostic catheter, and a 300 cm long Fielder FC wire was passed. The diagnostic catheter was exchanged with a 7F JL 3.5 guide catheter but could not be hooked this time also. A 2 mm × 15 mm Ryujin plus balloon was passed distally in the RCA and dilated to 8 atm [Figure 2]. This anchoring force of the dilated balloon was utilized to lead the guide catheter and hence successfully hook the RCA. Once cannulated, the lesion was predilated using the same balloon at 12 atm [Figure 3]. Finally, RCA was stented in the mid part using 2.75 mm × 32 mm GenX Sync drug-eluting stent at 12 atm to a diameter of 2.91 mm and proximally using a 3 mm × 32 mm GenX Sync drug-eluting stent at 14 atm to a diameter of 3.20 mm. Final injection showed a TIMI III flow [Figure 4]. There was no dissection, thrombus, or any other periprocedural complication. The patient was discharged on the 2nd postoperative day and is awaiting routine follow-up after 1 month.
|Figure 1: Anomalous right coronary artery arising from left coronary sinus showing a mid-tubular tight lesion|
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|Figure 2: A 2 mm × 15 mm Ryujin plus balloon placed distally in the right coronary artery and dilated to 8 atm|
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|Figure 3: The lesion being dilated at 12 atm after the right coronary artery is engaged coaxially|
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| Discussion|| |
Congenital CAA are usually classified as abnormalities of origin and course, intrinsic anatomic abnormality, termination, and anomalous collateral vessels. Among these, the prevalence of anomalous coronary arteries from opposite sinus varies from 0.1% to 0.3% in various studies., They are further classified depending on their course as interarterial, subpulmonic, prepulmonic, retroaortic, and retrocardiac. Among these subtypes, interarterial is usually associated with sudden cardiac death in young individuals whereas rest of the subtypes are generally considered benign and patients are frequently asymptomatic. Hence, it is not uncommon for patients with an anomalous RCA from left sinus to present for the first time with a coexistant atherosclerotic disease.
The ostium of anomalous RCA arising from the left sinus frequently lies anterior and cephalad to the left main coronary artery. The most frequently encountered problem while doing PCI for such arteries is the inability to coaxially align the guide catheter and lack of adequate backup support for the guide catheter. There are various case reports using different catheters for such cases. Multipurpose hockey stick catheter was used by Caliskan et al. whereas Qayyum et al. reported the use of a modified AL catheter with a right-angled tip called the Leya catheter for cannulating and providing stable support for interventions on anomalous RCA. However, these special catheters are not readily available in most of the catheterization laboratories. The authors described a case in which a primary PCI of anomalous RCA was done using a relatively shorter Judkins left guide and giving the wire a wider curve. In the current case, we could hook the RCA ostium with a diagnostic catheter, but several attempts with different guide catheters were unsuccessful. Hence, a small balloon was parked distally into the RCA. The anchoring force of this dilated balloon helped in tracking and aligning the guide catheter coaxially following which the procedure was completed successfully.
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Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]